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About sharing image copyrightGetty Images When Reynhard Sinaga took a victim back to his flat, he would drug them unconscious before launching his assault. What is GHB? Although it is sometimes referred to as a date rape drug, GHB gamma-hydroxybutyrate is actually used recreationally and consensually. It is fairly common for gay men to use it during chemsex solcent when drugs are used to enhance sex between two or more partners - but it is also used by heterosexuals as a party drug. But rapists use GHB as a weapon - one recent survey estimated more than a quarter of those polled were sexually assaulted whilst unconscious. The sexual predator who waited outside nightclubs GHB is a separate but almost identical drug to GBL gamma-butyrolactonea substance sold legally as an industrial solvent but which becomes GHB once it enters the body.
On December 12,a year-old woman had a seizure and lost consciousness after drinking approximately 2. DEA is taking this action because there is a serious threat to the public safety associated with the ease by which GBL is chemically converted to the schedule I controlled substance gamma-hydroxybutyric acid GHB. Vet Hum Toxicol ; Patient 7 exhibited intermittent periods of extreme agitation, necessitating chemical treatment and physical restraint, punctuated by moments of calm during which her attention focused on minor details.
Typically, analogs are marketed as dietary supplements, sleep aids, and cleaning products.
Although it is sometimes referred to as a date rape drug, GHB gamma-hydroxybutyrate is actually used recreationally and consensually. DEA is seeking through this rulemaking to exempt only those chemical mixtures that do not represent a ificant risk of diversion. DEA notified retailers of the potential for abuse, which resulted in the voluntary withdrawal of these products from store shelves.
This regulation makes GBL chemical mixtures, in solvnet greater than 70 percent, subject to List I chemical regulatory requirements of the CSA, except if exempted through an existing categorical wolvent.
There is no antidote for GHB; treatment consists of supportive therapy until symptoms of toxicity subside. Examples include, but are not limited to, dilutions in water and the presence of a carrier gas.
In the ED, he was unconscious with spontaneous eye opening, a positive withdrawal reflex, and no speech Glasgow Coma Scale of 7 ; rectal temperature was This report describes seven cases of GBL toxicity involving the product "Revivarant," which is labeled as containing 1. The most common urine tests screen only for solvvent "NIDA-5," five of the most commonly abused of drugs--amphetamines amphetamines, methamphetaminecocaine powdered cocaine, crackcannabinoids marijuana, hashopiates heroin, opium, codeine, morphineand phencyclidine PCP.
Solvetn before the incident, the woman had been arrested after passing out at a red light. Accessed February 24, On arrival at the ED, they alternated between somnolence and confusion. Breath ethanol level was 0. These symptoms followed ingestion of Revivarant 2 oz by patient 6 and an unknown amount by patient 7. Abusers and distributors may obtain commercial products such as chemical solvents legally and then illegally consume or distribute them.
The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Isla beautiful ladies
Public education efforts should inform consumers that FDA review procedures for drugs are different than those used for dietary supplements. Is it illegal?
An inert carrier is any chemical that does not modify the function of the listed chemical but is present to aid in the delivery of the listed chemical. Is it addictive? Both the Marquis reagent and the Mandelin reagent tests are available commercially.
Some also fear they could be investigated for drugs offences. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol ; Most of the patients were discharged from the ED within 13 hours of arrival; three were hospitalized.
In that NPRM, DEA stated that it anticipated that chemical mixtures over 70 percent, as identified for use as protective coatings and films, will be automatically exempt pursuant to 21 Soovent Recognized manifestations of GHB toxicity include bradycardia, hypothermia, central nervous system depression, and uncontrolled movements 1. Source: Associated Press.
Most users recognize the analog by the brand name or through advertisements that tout the product as a replacement for a similar product that has been removed from the market. Urine tests for GHB and GHB analogs must be performed within 12 hours after ingestion, and blood tests must be performed within 5 hours. Available at:.
Texas From October 2,through January 24,Texas poison-control centers identified 20 adverse events resulting in ED visits among persons who had ingested GBL-containing products. Although labeled as dietary supplements, GBL-containing products are illegally marketed, unapproved new drugs that have been involved in at least 55 reports of adverse events, including one death DEA is concerned that ssolvent businesses may be unintentionally contributing to the diversion sopvent GBL. Multistate outbreak of poisonings associated with illicit use of gamma hydroxy butyrate.
Mamelak M. A dependence on G can develop quickly, and Professor Winstock warns that anyone who has taken it daily should not try to stop without medical help.
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Like many illicit drugs, the prevalence of G is hard to track as it does not feature in national drug use surveys. On leaving the bar, witnesses observed them fall and become unresponsive. During the s, it was used as a sleep aid and a supplement for body building. Shortly thereafter, he gradually lost consciousness and subsequently fell. On October 31,a year-old man patient 4 and a year-old man patient 5 each drank oz of Revivarant while drinking alcohol at a bar.
For assistance, please send e-mail to: mmwrq cdc. Although GBL is used legally in industry, it Gb, also been a Class C drug sinceand anyone who supplies or possesses it, believing that it will be consumed, is breaking the law.
Management of Gamma-Butyrolactone Dependence with Assisted Self-Administration of GBL Isla beautiful ladies
GHB analogs often are sold with disclaimers that they are not for human consumption; however, many of the products have labels implying that the product may be ingested. Patients' ages ranged from 11 to 41 years; 13 were male.
Although a chemical commodity when used by legitimate industry, diversion of GBL is tantamount to diversion of a schedule I controlled substance if intended for human consumption. The long term effects of taking G repeatedly are not yet known. A Breathalyzer test failed to detect alcohol; however, the woman admitted to having drunk from a bottle Gb contained GHB. He denied GBL use or illicit drug use.
The man initially purchased the product in July as a sleep aid from a local health food store and was unaware that the product contained a GHB solbent. Talk paper T Toxic effects of GBL would be expected to be similar or identical to those of GHB, but clinical experience is limited 6,7.